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        問題

        (b) Explain what is meant by McGregor’s

        (i) Theory X; (5 marks)

        參考答案
        正確答案:(b) Douglas McGregor has suggested that the managers’ view of the individuals’ attitude to work can be divided into two categories, which he called Theory X and Theory Y. The style. of management adopted will stem from the view taken as to how subordinates behave. However, these two typologies are not distinct; they do in fact represent the two ends of a continuum.(i) Theory X is based on traditional organisational thinking. It assumes that the average person is basically indolent and has an inherent dislike of work which should be avoided at all costs. The individual lacks ambition, shuns responsibility, has no ambition and is resistant to change. This theory holds that the individual seeks only security and is driven solely by self-interest. It follows that because of this dislike of work, most have to be directed, controlled, organised or coerced. Management is based on fear and punishment and will have an exploitative or authoritarian style. This reflects the thinking of the classical school of management, based on a scientific approach, specialisation, standardisation and obedience to superiors.
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